利用XMLBean轻轻松松读写XML

一、关于XML解析

XML在Java应用程序里变得越来越重要, 广泛应用于数据存储交换. 比如我们常见的配置文件,都是以XML方式存储的. XML还应用于Java Message Service和Web Services等技术作为数据交换.

因此,正确读写XML文档是XML应用的基础.

Java提供了SAX和DOM两种方式用于解析XML,但即便如此,要读写一个稍微复杂的XML,也不是一件容易的事.

二、XMLBean简介

Hibernate已经成为目前流行的面向Java环境的对象/关系数据库映射工具.

在Hibernate等对象/关系数据库映射工具出现之前,对数据库的操作是通过JDBC来实现的,对数据库的任何操作,开发人员都要自己写SQL语句来实现. 对象/关系数据库映射工具出现后,对数据库的操作转成对JavaBean的操作,极大方便了数据库开发. 所以如果有一个类似的工具能够实现将对XML的读写转成对JavaBean的操作,将会简化XML的读写,即使对XML不熟悉的开发人员也能方便地读写XML. 这个工具就是XMLBean.

三、准备XMLBean和XML文档

XMLBean是Apache的一个开源项目,可以从http://www.apache.org下载,最新的版本是2.0. 解压后目录如下:
xmlbean2.0.0
+—bin
+—docs
+—lib
+—samples
+—schemas

另外还要准备一个XML文档(customers.xml),在本文的例子里,我们将对这个文档进行读写操作. 文档源码如下:
<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?><Customers>
<customer>
<id>1</id>
<gender>female</gender>
<firstname>Jessica</firstname>
<lastname>Lim</lastname>
<phoneNumber>1234567</phoneNumber>
<address>
<primaryAddress>
<postalCode>350106</postalCode>
<addressLine1>#25-1</addressLine1>
<addressLine2>SHINSAYAMA 2-CHOME</
addressLine2>
</primaryAddress>
<billingAddress>
<receiver>Ms Danielle</receiver>
<postalCode>350107</postalCode>
<addressLine1>#167</addressLine1>
<addressLine2>NORTH TOWER HARBOUR CITY</addressLine2>
</billingAddress>
</address>
</customer>
<customer>
<id>2</id>
<gender>male</gender>
<firstname>David</firstname>
<lastname>Bill</lastname>
<phoneNumber>808182</phoneNumber>
<address>
<primaryAddress>
<postalCode>319087</postalCode>
<addressLine1>1033 WS St.</addressLine1>
<addressLine2>Tima Road</addressLine2>
</primaryAddress>
<billingAddress>
<receiver>Mr William</receiver>
<postalCode>672993</postalCode>
<addressLine1>1033 WS St.</addressLine1>
<addressLine2>Tima Road</addressLine2>
</billingAddress>
</address>
</customer></Customers>

这是一个客户的数据模型,每个客户都有客户编号(ID),姓名,性别(gender),电话号码(phoneNumber)和地址,其中地址有两个: 首要地址(PrimaryAddress)和帐单地址(BillingAddress),每个地址有邮编,地址1,和地址2组成.其中帐单地址还有收件人(receiver).

此外,还要准备一个配置文件(文件名customer.xsdconfig),这个文件的作用我后面会讲,它的内容如下:
<xb:config xmlns:xb=”http://xml.apache.org/xmlbeans/2004/02/xbean/config”&gt;
<xb:namespace>
<xb:package>sample.xmlbean</xb:package>
</xb:namespace></xb:config>

四、XMLBean使用步骤

和其他面向Java环境的对象/关系数据库映射工具的使用步骤一样,在正式使用XMLBean前,我们要作两个准备.

1. 生成XML Schema文件

什么是XML Schema文件? 正常情况下,每个XML文件都有一个Schema文件,XML Schema文件是一个XML的约束文件,它定义了XML文件的结构和元素.以及对元素和结构的约束. 通俗地讲,如果说XML文件是数据库里的记录,那么Schema就是表结构定义.

为什么需要这个文件? XMLBean需要通过这个文件知道一个XML文件的结构以及约束,比如数据类型等. 利用这个Schema文件,XMLBean将会产生一系列相关的Java Classes来实现对XML的操作. 而作为开发人员,则是利用XMLBean产生的Java Classes来完成对XML的操作而不需要SAX或DOM.

怎样产生这个Schema文件呢? 如果对于熟悉XML的开发人员,可以自己来写这个Schema文件,对于不熟悉XML的开发人员,可以通过一些工具来完成.

比较有名的如XMLSPY和Stylus Studio都可以通过XML文件来生成Schema文件. 加入我们已经生成这个Schema文件(customer.xsd):
<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>
<xs:schema xmlns:xs=”http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema&#8221;
elementFormDefault=”qualified”>
<xs:element name=”Customers”>
<xs:complexType>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element maxOccurs=”unbounded” name=”customer”
type=”customerType”/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:element>
<xs:complexType name=”customerType”>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name=”id” type=”xs:int”/>
<xs:element name=”gender” type=”xs:string”/>
<xs:element name=”firstname” type=”xs:string”/>
<xs:element name=”lastname” type=”xs:string”/>
<xs:element name=”phoneNumber” type=”xs:string”/>
<xs:element name=”address” type=”addressType”/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:complexType name=”addressType”>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name=”primaryAddress” type=”primaryAddressType”/>
<xs:element name=”billingAddress” type=”billingAddressType”/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:complexType name=”primaryAddressType”>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name=”postalCode” type=”xs:string”/>
<xs:element name=”addressLine1″ type=”xs:string”/>
<xs:element name=”addressLine2″ type=”xs:string”/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:complexType name=”billingAddressType”>
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name=”receiver” type=”xs:string”/>
<xs:element name=”postalCode” type=”xs:string”/>
<xs:element name=”addressLine1″ type=”xs:string”/>
<xs:element name=”addressLine2″ type=”xs:string”/>
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
</xs:schema>

2. 利用scomp来生成Java Classes

scomp是XMLBean提供的一个编译工具,它在bin的目录下. 通过这个工具,我们可以将以上的Schema文件生成Java Classes.

scomp的语法如下:-

scomp [options] [dirs]* [schemaFile.xsd]* [service.wsdl]* [config.xsdconfig]*

主要参数说明:
-src [dir]         – 生成的Java Classes存放目录
-srconly         – 不编译Java Classes,不产生Jar文件
-out [jarFileName] – 生成的Jar文件,缺省是xmltypes.jar
-compiler         — Java编译器的路径,即Javac的位置
schemaFile.xsd  – XML Schema文件位置
config.xsdconfig  — xsdconfig文件的位置, 这个文件主要用来制定生成的Java Class
的一些文件名规则和Package的名称,在本文,package是sample.xmlbean

在本文,我是这样运行的:
scomp -src build\src -out build\customerXmlBean.jar schema\customer.xsd
-compiler C:\jdk142_04\bin\javac customer.xsdconfig

这个命令行的意思是告诉scomp生成customerXmlBean.jar,放在build目录下,同时
生成源代码放在build\src下, Schema文件是customer.xsd,xsdconfig文件是customer.xsdconfig.

其实, 生成的Java源代码没有多大作用,我们要的是jar文件.我们先看一下build\src\sample\xmlbean下生成的Classes.
CustomersDocument.java
— 整个XML文档的Java Class映射
CustomerType.java
— 节点sustomer的映射
AddressType.java
— 节点address的映射
BillingAddressType.java
— 节点billingAddress的映射
PrimaryAddressType.java
— 节点primaryAddress的映射

好了,到此我们所有的准备工作已经完成了. 下面就开始进入重点:利用刚才生成的jar文件读写XML.

五、利用XMLBean读XML文件

新建一个Java Project,将XMLBean2.0.0\lib\下的Jar文件和刚才我们生成的customerXmlBean.jar加入

到Project的ClassPath.

新建一个Java Class: CustomerXMLBean. 源码如下:
package com.sample.reader;
import java.io.File;
import sample.xmlbean.*;
import org.apache.commons.beanutils.BeanUtils;
import org.apache.xmlbeans.XmlOptions;
public class CustomerXMLBean {
private String filename = null;
public CustomerXMLBean(String filename) {
super();
this.filename = filename;
}
public void customerReader() {
try {
File xmlFile = new File(filename);
CustomersDocument doc = CustomersDocument.Factory.parse(xmlFile);
CustomerType[] customers = doc.getCustomers().getCustomerArray();
for (int i = 0; i < customers.length; i++) {
CustomerType customer = customers[i];
println(“Customer#” + i);
println(“Customer ID:” + customer.getId());
println(“First name:” + customer.getFirstname());
println(“Last name:” + customer.getLastname());
println(“Gender:” + customer.getGender());
println(“PhoneNumber:” + customer.getPhoneNumber());
// Primary address
PrimaryAddressType primaryAddress = customer.getAddress().getPrimaryAddress();
println(“PrimaryAddress:”);
println(“PostalCode:” + primaryAddress.getPostalCode());
println(“AddressLine1:” + primaryAddress.getAddressLine1());
println(“AddressLine2:” + primaryAddress.getAddressLine2());
// Billing address
BillingAddressType billingAddress = customer.getAddress().getBillingAddress();
println(“BillingAddress:”);
println(“Receiver:” + billingAddress.getReceiver());
println(“PostalCode:” + billingAddress.getPostalCode());
println(“AddressLine1:” + billingAddress.getAddressLine1());
println(“AddressLine2:” + billingAddress.getAddressLine2());
}
} catch (Exception ex) {
ex.printStackTrace();
}
}
private void println(String str) {
System.out.println(str);  }  public static void main(String[] args) {
String filename = “F://JavaTest//Eclipse//XMLBean//xml//customers.xml”;
CustomerXMLBean customerXMLBean = new CustomerXMLBean(filename);
customerXMLBean.customerReader();
}
}

运行它,参看输出结果:
Customer#0
Customer ID:1
First name:Jessica
Last name:Lim
Gender:female
PhoneNumber:1234567
PrimaryAddress:
PostalCode:350106
AddressLine1:#25-1
AddressLine2:SHINSAYAMA 2-CHOME
BillingAddress:
Receiver:Ms Danielle
PostalCode:350107
AddressLine1:#167
AddressLine2:NORTH TOWER HARBOUR CITY
Customer#1
Customer ID:2
First name:David
Last name:Bill
Gender:male
PhoneNumber:808182
PrimaryAddress:
PostalCode:319087
AddressLine1:1033 WS St.
AddressLine2:Tima Road
BillingAddress:
Receiver:Mr William
PostalCode:672993
AddressLine1:1033 WS St.
AddressLine2:Tima Road
怎么样,是不是很轻松? XMLBean的威力.

六、利用XMLBean写XML文件

利用XMLBean创建一个XML文档也是一件轻而易举的事.我们再增加一个Method,
请看一下的Java Class:
public void createCustomer() {
try {
// Create Document
CustomersDocument doc = CustomersDocument.Factory.newInstance();
// Add new customer
CustomerType customer = doc.addNewCustomers().addNewCustomer();
// set customer info
customer.setId(3);
customer.setFirstname(“Jessica”);
customer.setLastname(“Lim”);
customer.setGender(“female”);
customer.setPhoneNumber(“1234567”);
// Add new address
AddressType address = customer.addNewAddress();
// Add new PrimaryAddress
PrimaryAddressType primaryAddress = address.addNewPrimaryAddress();
primaryAddress.setPostalCode(“350106”);
primaryAddress.setAddressLine1(“#25-1”);
primaryAddress.setAddressLine2(“SHINSAYAMA 2-CHOME”);
// Add new BillingAddress
BillingAddressType billingAddress = address.addNewBillingAddress();
billingAddress.setReceiver(“Ms Danielle”);
billingAddress.setPostalCode(“350107”);
billingAddress.setAddressLine1(“#167”);
billingAddress.setAddressLine2(“NORTH TOWER HARBOUR CITY”);
File xmlFile = new File(filename);
doc.save(xmlFile);    } catch (Exception ex) {
ex.printStackTrace();    } }
修改main method.
public static void main(String[] args) {
String filename = “F://JavaTest//Eclipse//XMLBean//xml//customers_new.xml”;
CustomerXMLBean customerXMLBean = new CustomerXMLBean(filename);
customerXMLBean.createCustomer();
}
运行,打开customers_new.xml:
<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>
<Customers>
<customer>
<id>3</id>
<gender>female</gender>
<firstname>Jessica</firstname>
<lastname>Lim</lastname>
<phoneNumber>1234567</phoneNumber>
<address>
<primaryAddress>
<postalCode>350106</postalCode>
<addressLine1>#25-1</addressLine1>
<addressLine2>SHINSAYAMA 2-CHOME</addressLine2>
</primaryAddress>
<billingAddress>
<receiver>Ms Danielle</receiver>
<postalCode>350107</postalCode>
<addressLine1>#167</addressLine1>
<addressLine2>NORTH TOWER HARBOUR CITY</addressLine2>
</billingAddress>
</address>
</customer>
</Customers>

七、利用XMLBean修改XML文件

我们再增加一个Method:
public void updateCustomer(int id,String lastname) {
try {
File xmlFile = new File(filename);
CustomersDocument doc = CustomersDocument.Factory.parse(xmlFile);
CustomerType[] customers = doc.getCustomers().getCustomerArray();
for (int i = 0; i < customers.length; i++) {
CustomerType customer = customers[i];
if(customer.getId()==id){
customer.setLastname(lastname);
break;
}
}
doc.save(xmlFile);
} catch (Exception ex) {
ex.printStackTrace();
}
}
main method:
public static void main(String[] args) {
String filename = “F://JavaTest//Eclipse//XMLBean//xml//customers_new.xml”;
CustomerXMLBean customerXMLBean = new CustomerXMLBean(filename);
customerXMLBean.updateCustomer(3,”last”);  }
运行之后,我们将会看到客户编号为3的客户的lastname已经改为last.

八、利用XMLBean删除一个customer

再增加一个Method:
public void deleteCustomer(int id) {
try {
File xmlFile = new File(filename);
CustomersDocument doc = CustomersDocument.Factory.parse(xmlFile);
CustomerType[] customers = doc.getCustomers().getCustomerArray();
for (int i = 0; i < customers.length; i++) {
CustomerType customer = customers[i];
if(customer.getId()==id){
customer.setNil() ;
break;
}
}
doc.save(xmlFile);
} catch (Exception ex) {
ex.printStackTrace();
}
}

main method:
public static void main(String[] args) {
String filename = “F://JavaTest//Eclipse//XMLBean//xml//customers_new.xml”;
CustomerXMLBean customerXMLBean = new CustomerXMLBean(filename);
customerXMLBean.deleteCustomer(3);
}

运行,我们将会看到客户编号为3的客户的资料已经被删除.

九、查询XML

除了本文在以上讲述的,利用XMLBean能轻轻松松完成XML的读写操作外,结合XPath和XQuery,

XMLBean还能完成象SQL查询数据库一样方便地查询XML数据. 关于XML查询以及如何创建XML数据库, 我将在另一篇文章里讨论.

十、结束语

XMLBean能帮助我们轻易读写XML,这将有助于我们降低XML的学习和使用,有了这个基础,开发人员将为学习更多地XML相关技术和Web Services,JMS等其他J2EE技术打下良好地基础.

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