Security Stocks Bond Equities Shares 区别

Securities:证券,是各类财产所有权或债权凭证的通称,是用来证明证券持有人有权依票面所载内容,取得相就权益的凭证。所以,证券的本质是一种交易契约或合同,该契约或合同赋予合同持有人根据该合同的规定,对合同规定的标的采取相应的行为,并获得相应的收益的权利。按其性质不同可将证券分为证据证券,凭证证券和有价证券。有价证券又可分为:(1)资本证券,如股票、债券等;(2)货币证券,包括银行券、银行票据等;(3)财物证券,如货运单、提单、栈单等。

An instrument representing ownership (stocks), a debt agreement (bonds) or the rights to ownership (derivatives).

A security is essentially a contract that can be assigned a value and traded. Examples of a security include a note, stock, preferred share, bond, debenture, option, future, swap, right, warrant, or virtually any other financial asset.

Securities are traditionally divided into debt securities and equities:

(1)Debt securities may be called debentures, bonds, deposits, notes or commercial paper depending on their maturity and certain other characteristics. The holder of a debt security is typically entitled to the payment of principal and interest, together with other contractual rights under the terms of the issue, such as the right to receive certain information.

(2)An equity security is a share in the capital stock of a company. The holder of an equity is a shareholder, owning a share, or fractional part of the issuer. Unlike debt securities, which typically require regular payments (interest) to the holder, equity securities are not entitled to any payment. In bankruptcy, they share only in the residual interest of the issuer after all obligations have been paid out to creditors.

Bond:债券,是政府、金融机构、工商企业等机构直接向社会借债筹措资金时,想向投资者发行,并且承诺按一定利率支付利息并按约定条件偿还本金的债权债务凭证。债券的本质是债的证明书,具有法律效力。债券购买者与发行者之间是一种债权债务关系,债券发行人即债务人,投资者(或债券持有人)即债权人;

债券是一种有价证券,是社会各类经济主体为筹措资金而向债券投资者出具的,并且承诺按一定利率定期支付利息和到期偿还本金的债权债务凭证。由于债券的利息通常是事先确定的,所以,债券又被称为固定利息证券。债券包含了以下四层含义:

1.债券的发行人(政府、金融机构、企业等机构)是资金的借入者;

2.购买债券的投资者是资金的借出者;

3.发行人(借入者)需要在一定时期还本付息;

4.债券是债的证明书,具有法律效力。债券购买者与发行者之间是一种债权债务关系,债券发行人即债务人,投资者(或债券持有人)即债权人。

In finance, a bond is a debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and, depending on the terms of the bond, is obliged to pay interest (the coupon) and/or to repay the principal at a later date, termed maturity. It is a formal contract to repay borrowed money with interest at fixed intervals.

Thus a bond is like a loan: the issuer is the borrower, the bond holder is the lender, and the coupon is the interest. Bonds provide the borrower with external funds to finance long-term investments, or, in the case of government bonds, to finance current expenditure. Certificates of deposit (CDs) or commercial paper are considered to be money market instruments and not bonds.

Bonds and stocks are both securities, but the major difference between the two is that stock-holders are the owners of the company (i.e., they have an equity stake), whereas bond holders are lenders to the issuers. Another difference is that bonds usually have a defined term, or maturity, after which the bond is redeemed, whereas stocks may be outstanding indefinitely. An exception is a consol bond, which is a perpetuity (i.e., bond with no maturity).

Stock:股票,是股份有限公司在筹集资本时向出资人发行的股份凭证,代表着其持有者(即股东)对股份公司的所有权。股东与公司之间的关系不是债权债务关系。股东是公司的所有者,以其出资额为限对公司负有限责任,承担风险,分享收益。股票是一种无偿还期限的有价证券,投资者认购了股票后,就不能再要求退股,只能到二级市场卖给第三者。

股票持有者凭股票从股份公司取得的收入是股息。股息的发配取决于公司的股息政策,如果公司不发派股息,股东没有获得股息的权利。优先股股东可以获得固定金额的股息,而普通股股东的股息是与公司的利润相关的。普通股股东股息的发派在优先股股东之后,必须所有的优先股股东满额获得他们曾被承诺的股息之后,普通股股东才有权力发派股息。

It’s type of security that signifies ownership in a corporation and represents a claim on part of the corporation’s assets and earnings.

There are two main types of stock: common and preferred. Common stock usually entitles the owner to vote at shareholders’ meetings and to receive dividends. Preferred stock generally does not have voting rights, but has a higher claim on assets and earnings than the common shares. For example, owners of preferred stock receive dividends before common shareholders and have priority in the event that a company goes bankrupt and is liquidated.

Also known as “shares” or “equity”.

Thus, a holder of stock (a shareholder) has a claim to a part of the corporation’s assets and earnings. In other words, a shareholder is an owner of a company. Ownership is determined by the number of shares a person owns relative to the number of outstanding shares. For example, if a company has 1,000 shares of stock outstanding and one person owns 100 shares, that person would own and have claim to 10% of the company’s assets.

Shares:股份,指将公司的股本分成同等权益的单位。例如,公司有1亿元的资本被分割成1百万股,每股面额100元的股票,股份拥有人称为会员或股东,对公司有收取股利及经营管理之权,主要分为普通股和优先股。股权证书是用来证明对公司的所有权,股票可依合适的价格在证券交易所以零股或整批的方式进行交易,就股份有限公司而言,股东负债数额仅限于投资在该公司的股份。

A unit of ownership interest in a corporation or financial asset. While owning shares in a business does not mean that the shareholder has direct control over the business’s day-to-day operations, being a shareholder does entitle the possessor to an equal distribution in any profits, if any are declared in the form of dividends. The two main types of shares are common shares and preferred shares.

Stock 是股票(证劵)的统称。

I own stocks. (我拥有股票)

I have ten stocks in my portfolio. (我的投资组合内有十只股票)

Microsoft’s stock hits a recent high. (微软的股票达到近来的高位)

Share 是一股股票,每一股有一个投票权

I own a share of Microsoft. (我拥有一股微软)

I own two hundred shares of Microsoft. (我有二百股微软)

I own two hundred shares of Microsoft’s stock. (我有二百股微软的股票)

Some stocks are divided into A, B, and C shares. (有些股票分为A/B/C股)

Equity:股本(资产),指股东在公司中所占的权益,多用于指股票。股票的面值与股份总数的乘积为股本,股本等于公司的注册资本。公司发行股票取得的收入与股本总额往往不一致,公司发行股票取得的收入大于股本总额的,称为溢价发行;小于股本总额的,称为折价发行;等于股本总额的,为面值发行。我国不允许公司折价发行股票。在采用溢价发行股票的情况下,公司应将相当于股票面值的部分记入”股本”科目,其余部分在扣除发行手续费、佣金等发行费用后记入”资本公积”科目。

In terms of investment strategies, equity (stocks) is one of the principal asset classes. The other two are fixed-income (bonds) and cash/cash-equivalents. These are used in asset allocation planning to structure a desired risk and return profile for an investor’s portfolio.

In finance, in general, you can think of equity as ownership in any asset after all debts associated with that asset are paid off. For example, a car or house with no outstanding debt is considered the owner’s equity because he or she can readily sell the item for cash. Stocks are equity because they represent ownership in a company.

FROM HERE

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